Kotian SR, Sachin KS, Bhat KM. Bifurcated plantaris with rare relations to the neurovascular bundle in the popliteal fossa. Anat Sci Int. 2013;88:239–241.
Fukashiro S, Komi PV, Jarvinen M, Miyashita M. In vivo Achilles tendon loading during jumping in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1995;71:453–458.
Maffulli N. Rupture of the Achilles tendon. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81:1019–1036.
Jarvinen TA, Kannus P, Maffulli N, Khan KM. Achilles tendon disorders: etiology and epidemiology. Foot Ankle Clin. 2005;10:255–266.
Nyyssonen T, Luthje P, Kroger H. The increasing incidence and difference in sex distribution of Achilles tendon rupture in Finland in 1987–1999. Scand J Surg. 2008;97:272–275.
Houshian S, Tscherning T, Riegels-Nielsen P. The epidemiology of Achilles tendon rupture in a Danish county. Injury. 1998;29:651–654.
Raikin SM, Garras DN, Krapchev PV. Achilles tendon injuries in a United States population. Foot Ankle Int. 2013;34:475–480.
Vosseller JT, Ellis SJ, Levine DS, et al. Achilles tendon rupture in women. Foot Ankle Int. 2013;34:49–53.
Nicol AM, McCurdie I, Etherington J. Use of ultrasound to identify chronic Achilles tendinosis in an active asymptomatic population. J R Army Med Corps. 2006;152:212–216.
Joseph MF, Crowley J, Dilieto L, O’Neil B, Denegar CR. Incidence of morphologic changes in asymptomatic Achilles tendons in an active young adult population. J Sport Rehabil. 2012;21:249–252.
Stephenson AL, WuW Cortes D, Rochon PA. Tendon Injury and Fluoroquinolone Use: A Systematic Review. Drug Saf. 2013
Chiodo CP, Glazebrook M, Bluman EM, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 2010;18:503–510.
Alfredson H, Masci L, Ohberg L. Partial mid-portion Achilles tendon ruptures: new sonographic findings helpful for diagnosis. Br J Sports Med. 2010;45:429–432.
Margetić P, Miklić D, Rakić-Ersek V, Doko Z, Lubina ZI, Brkljacić B. Comparison of ultrasonographic and intraoperative findings in Achilles tendon rupture. Coll Antropol. 2007;31:279–284.
van der Eng DM, Schepers T, Goslings JC, Schep NW. Re-rupture Rate after Early Weightbearing in Operative Versus Conservative Treatment of Achilles Tendon Ruptures: A Meta-analysis. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2013;52:622–628.
Khan RJ, Carey Smith RL. Surgical interventions for treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures. Cochrane Database. Syst Rev. :CD003674.
Soroceanu A, Sidhwa F, Aarabi S, Kaufman A, Glazebrook M. Surgical versus nonsurgical treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:2136–2143.
Bhandari M, Guyatt GH, Siddiqui F, et al. Treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a systematic overview and meta-analysis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002:190–200.
Maeda T, Sakabe T, Sunaga A, et al. Conversion of mechanical force into TGF-beta-mediated biochemical signals. Curr Biol. 2011;21:933–941.
Zhang J, Wang JH. The effects of mechanical loading on tendons - an in vivo and in vitro model study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e71740.
Heinemeier KM, Skovgaard D, Bayer ML, et al. Uphill running improves rat Achilles tendon tissue mechanical properties and alters gene expression without inducing pathological changes. J Appl Physiol. 1985;113:827–836.
Jones ER, Jones GC, Legerlotz Km, Riley GP. Cyclical strain modulates metalloprotease and matrix gene expression in human tenocytes via activation of TGFbeta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1833:2596–2607.
Garrick JG. Does accelerated functional rehabilitation after surgery improve outcomes in patients with acute achilles tendon ruptures? Clin J Sport Med. 2012;22:379–380.
Mortensen HM, Skov O, Jensen PE. Early motion of the ankle after operative treatment of a rupture of the Achilles tendon. A prospective, randomized clinical and radiographic study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999;81:983–990.
Costa ML, Shepstone L, Darrah C, Marshall T, Donell ST. Immediate full-weight-bearing mobilisation for repaired Achilles tendon ruptures: a pilot study. Injury. 2003;34:874–876.
Maffulli N, Tallon C, Wong J, Peng Lim K, Bleakney R. No adverse effect of early weight bearing following open repair of acute tears of the Achilles tendon. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003;43:367–379.
de Vos RJ, Weir A, van Schie HT, et al. Platelet-rich plasma injection for chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2010;303:144–149.
Alfredson H. Chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: an update on research and treatment. Clin Sports Med. 2003;22:727–741.
Longo UG, Ronga M, Maffulli N. Achilles tendinopathy. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2009;17:112–126.
Fukuta S, Oyama M, Kavalkovich K, Fu FH, Niyibizi C. Identification of types II, IX and X collagens at the insertion site of the bovine achilles tendon. Matrix Biol. 1998;17:65–73.
Henninger HB, Underwood CJ, Romney SJ, Davis GL, Weiss JA. Effect of elastin digestion on the quasi-static tensile response of medial collateral ligament. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1226–1233.
Rigozzi S, Muller R, Snedeker JG. Local strain measurement reveals a varied regional dependence of tensile tendon mechanics on glycosaminoglycan content. J Biomech. 2009;42:1547–1552.
Voleti PB, Buckley MR, Soslowsky LJ. Tendon healing: repair and regeneration. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2012;14:47–71.
Miller KS, Connizzo BK, Feeney E, Tucker JJ, Soslowsky LJ. Examining differences in local collagen fiber crimp frequency throughout mechanical testing in a developmental mouse supraspinatus tendon model. J Biomech Eng. 2012;134:041004.
Ciarletta P, Ben Amar M. A finite dissipative theory of temporary interfibrillar bridges in the extracellular matrix of ligaments and tendons. J R Soc Interface. 2009;6:909–924.
Lake SP, Miller KS, Elliott DM, Soslowsky LJ. Effect of fiber distribution and realignment on the nonlinear and inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendon under longitudinal tensile loading. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:1596–1602.
Ahmadzadeh H, Connizzo BK, Freedman BR, Soslowsky LJ, Shenoy VB. Determining the contribution of glycosaminoglycans to tendon mechanical properties with a modified shearlag model. J Biomech. 2013;46:2497–2503.
Franchi M, Fini M, Quaranta M, et al. Crimp morphology in relaxed and stretched rat Achilles tendon. J Anat. 2007;210:1–7.
Miller KS, Connizzo BK, Feeney E, Soslowsky LJ. Characterizing local collagen fiber re-alignment and crimp behavior throughout mechanical testing in a mature mouse supraspinatus tendon model. J Biomech. 2012;45:2061–2065.
Sharma P, Maffulli N. Tendon injury and tendinopathy: healing and repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005;87:187–202.
Woo SL, Johnson GA, Smith BA. Mathematical modeling of ligaments and tendons. J Biomech Eng. 1993;115:468–473.
Peltonen J, Cronin NJ, Stenroth L, Finni T, Avela J. Viscoelastic properties of the Achilles tendon in vivo. Springerplus. 2013;2:212.
Wang VM, Banack TM, Tsai CW, Flatow EL, Jepsen KJ. Variability in tendon and knee joint biomechanics among inbred mouse strains. J Orthop Res. 2006;24:1200–1207.
Neugebauer JM, Hawkins DA. Identifying factors related to Achilles tendon stress, strain, and stiffness before and after 6 months of growth in youth 10–14 years of age. J Biomech. 2012;45:2457–2461.
Plate JF, Wiggins WF, Haubruck P, et al. Normal aging alters in vivo passive biomechanical response of the rat gastrocnemius-Achilles muscle-tendon unit. J Biomech. 2013;46:450–455.
Beason DP, Kuntz AF, Hsu JE, Miller KS, Soslowsky LJ. Development and evaluation of multiple tendon injury models in the mouse. J Biomech. 2012;45:1550–3.
Chamberlain CS, Duenwald-Kuehl SE, Okotie G, Brounts SH, Baer GS, Vanderby R. Temporal Healing in Rat Achilles Tendon: Ultrasound Correlations. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:477–487.
Wren TA, Lindsey DP, Beaupre GS, Carter DR. Effects of creep and cyclic loading on the mechanical properties and failure of human Achilles tendons. Ann Biomed Eng. 2003;31:710–717.
Fung DT, Wang VM, Andarawis-Puri N, et al. Early response to tendon fatigue damage accumulation in a novel in vivo model. J Biomech. 2010;43:274–279.
Fung DT, Wang VM, Laudier DM, et al. Subrupture tendon fatigue damage. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:264–273.
Peltonen J, Cronin NJ, Stenroth L, Finni T, Avela J. Achilles tendon stiffness is unchanged one hour after a marathon. J Exp Biol. 2012;215:3665–3671.
Farris DJ, Trewartha G, McGuigan MP. The effects of a 30-min run on the mechanics of the human Achilles tendon. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112:653–660.
Lichtwark GA, Cresswell AG, Newsham-West RJ. Effects of running on human Achilles tendon length-tension properties in the free and gastrocnemius components. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:4388–94.
Schechtman H, Bader DL. In vitro fatigue of human tendons. J Biomech. 1997;30:829–835.
Ehrlich HP, Lambert PA, Saggers GC, Myers RL, Hauck RM. Dynamic changes appearing in collagen fibers during intrinsic tendon repair. Ann Plast Surg. 2005;54:201–206.
Hansen P, Kovanen V, Hölmich P, et al. Micromechanical properties and collagen composition of ruptured human achilles tendon. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:437–443.
Bring DK, Reno C, Renstrom P, Salo P, Hart DA, Ackermann PW. Joint immobilization reduces the expression of sensory neuropeptide receptors and impairs healing after tendon rupture in a rat model. J Orthop Res. 2009;27:274–280.
Jones GC, Corps AN, Pennington CJ, et al. Expression profiling of metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in normal and degenerate human achilles tendon. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:832–842.
Karousou E, Ronga M, Vigetti D, Passi A, Maffulli N. Collagens, proteoglycans, MMP-2, MMP-9 and TIMPs in human achilles tendon rupture. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:1577–1582.
Moerch L, Pingel J, Boesen M, Kjaer M, Langberg H. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons: influence of prior immobilization period. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013;113:449–455.
Mendias CL, Gumucio JP, Lynch EB. Mechanical loading and TGF-beta change the expression of multiple miRNAs in tendon fibroblasts. J Appl Physiol. 1985;113:56–62.
Sharir A, Zelzer E. Tendon homeostasis: the right pull. Curr Biol. 2011;21:R472–474.
Thornton GM, Shao X, Chung M, et al. Changes in mechanical loading lead to tendonspecific alterations in MMP and TIMP expression: influence of stress deprivation and intermittent cyclic hydrostatic compression on rat supraspinatus and Achilles tendons. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:698–703.
Eliasson P, Andersson T, Aspenberg P. Rat Achilles tendon healing: mechanical loading and gene expression. J Appl Physiol. 1985;107:399–407.
Sasaki K, Yamamoto N, Kiyosawa T, Sekido M. The role of collagen arrangement change during tendon healing demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. J Electron Microsc (Tokyo). 2012;61:327–334.
Enwemeka CS. Inflammation, cellularity, and fibrillogenesis in regenerating tendon: implications for tendon rehabilitation. Phys Ther. 1989;69:816–825.
Schepull T, Kvist J, Aspenberg P. Early E-modulus of healing Achilles tendons correlates with late function: similar results with or without surgery. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;22:18–23.
Maquirriain J. Achilles tendon rupture: avoiding tendon lengthening during surgical repair and rehabilitation. Yale J Biol Med. 2011;84:289–300.
Freedman BR SJ, Buckley MR, Voleti PB, Soslowsky LJ. Biomechanical and structural response of healing Achilles tendon to fatigue loading following acute injury. (in review).
Chamberlain CS, Duenworld-Kuehl SE, Okotie G, Brounts SH, Baer GS, Vanderby R. Temporal healing in rat achilles tendon: ultrasound correlations. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:477–487.
Okotie G, Duenwald-Kuehl S, Kobayashi H, Wu MJ, Vanderby R. Tendon strain measurements with dynamic ultrasound images: evaluation of digital image correlation. J Biomech Eng. 2012;134:024504.
Riggin CN, Sarver JJ, Freedman BR, Thomas SJ, Soslowsky LJ. Analysis of Collagen Organization in Mouse Achilles Tendon Using High-Frequency Ultrasound Imaging. J Biomech Eng. 2013
Cho NS, Hwang JH, Lee YT, Chae SW. Tendinosis-like histologic and molecular changes of the Achilles tendon to repetitive stress: a pilot study in rats. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:3172–3180.
Ikoma K, et al. Effects of stress-shielding on the dynamic viscoelasticity and ordering of the collagen fibers in rabbit Achilles tendon. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1708–12.
Ng GY, Chung PY, Wang JS, Cheung RT. Enforced bipedal downhill running induces Achilles tendinosis in rats. Connect Tissue Res. 2011;52:466–471.
Glazebrook MA, Wright JR Jr, Langman M, Stanish WD, Lee JM. Histological analysis of achilles tendons in an overuse rat model. J Orthop Res. 2008;26:840–846.
Dirks RC, Galley MR, Childress PJ, et al. Uphill treadmill running does not induce histopathological changes in the rat Achilles tendon. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2013;14:90. 11.
Veres SP, Harrison JM, Lee JM. Repeated subrupture overload causes progression of nanoscaled discrete plasticity damage in tendon collagen fibrils. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:731–737.
Dunkman AA, Buckley MR, Mienaltowski MJ, et al. Decorin Expression Is Required for Age-Related Changes in Tendon Structure and Mechanical Properties. Matrix Biol. 2013;32:3–13.
Provenzano PP, Vanderby R Jr. Collagen fibril morphology and organization: implications for force transmission in ligament and tendon. Matrix Biol. 2006;25:71–84.
Elliott DM, Robinson PS, Gimbel JA, et al. Effect of altered matrix proteins on quasilinear viscoelastic properties in transgenic mouse tail tendons. Ann Biomed Eng. 2003;31:599–605.
Lakes, R. Viscoelastic Materials. Cambridge University Press; 2009.
Eliasson P, Andersson T, Aspenberg P. Achilles tendon healing in rats is improved by intermittent mechanical loading during the inflammatory phase. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:274–279.
Eliasson P, Andersson T, Hammerman M, Aspenberg P. Primary gene response to mechanical loading in healing rat Achilles tendons. J Appl Physiol. 1985;114:1519–1526.
Andersson T, Eliasson P, Hammerman M, Sandberg O, Aspenberg P. Low-level mechanical stimulation is sufficient to improve tendon healing in rats. J Appl Physiol. 1985;113:1398–1402.
Keller BV, Davis ML, Thompson WR, Dahners LE, Weinhold PS. Varying whole body vibration amplitude differentially affects tendon and ligament structural and material properties. J Biomech. 2013;46:1496–1500.
Schepull T, Aspenberg P. Early Controlled Tension Improves the Material Properties of Healing Human Achilles Tendons After Ruptures: A Randomized Trial. Am J Sports Med. 2013
Williams DS, Zambardino JA, Banning VA. Transverse-plane mechanics at the knee and tibia in runners with and without a history of achilles tendonopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38:761–767.
Almonroeder T, Willson JD, Kernozek TW. The effect of foot strike pattern on achilles tendon load during running. Ann Biomed Eng. 2013;41:1758–1766.
Liang JI, et al. Video-based gait analysis for functional evaluation of healing achilles tendon in rats. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012;40:2532–2540.
Wu MM, Pai DK, Tresch MC, Sandercock TG. Passive elastic properties of the rat ankle. J Biomech. 2012;45:1728–1732.
Chen XM, Cui Lg, He P, Shen WW, Qian YJ, Wang JR. Shear wave elastographic characterization of normal and torn achilles tendons: a pilot study. J Ultrasound Med. 2013;32:449–455.
Brown PG, Alsousou J, Cooper A, Thompson MS, Noble JA. The AutoQual ultrasound elastography method for quantitative assessment of lateral strain in post-rupture Achilles tendons. J Biomech. 2013
Ellison M, Kobayashi H, Delaney F, et al. Feasibility and repeatability for in vivo measurements of stiffness gradients in the canine gastrocnemius tendon using an acoustoelastic strain gauge. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2013;54:548–554.
Killian ML, Cavinatto L, Galatz LM, Thomopoulos S. The role of mechanobiology in tendon healing. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2012;21:228–237.
Ansorge HL, Hau JE, Edelstein L, Adams Birk DE, Soslowsky LJ. Recapitulation of the Achilles tendon mechanical properties during neonatal development: a study of differential healing during two stages of development in a mouse model. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:448–456.
Beredjiklian PK, Favata M, Cartmell JS, Flanagan ZL, Crombleholme TM, Soslowsky LJ. Regenerative versus reparative healing in tendon: a study of biomechanical and histological properties in fetal sheep. Ann Biomed Eng. 2003;31:1143–1152.
Hurle JM, Hinchliffe JR, Ros MA, Critchlow MA, Genis-Galvez JM. The extracellular matrix architecture relating to myotendinous pattern formation in the distal part of the developing chick limb: an ultrastructural, histochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. Cell Differ Dev. 1989;27:103–120.
Brent AE, Tabin CJ. FGF acts directly on the somitic tendon progenitors through the Ets transcription factors Pea3 and Erm to regulate scleraxis expression. Development. 2004;131:3885–3896.
Schweitzer R, Chyung JH, Murtaugh LC, et al. Analysis of the tendon cell fate using Scleraxis, a specific marker for tendons and ligaments. Development. 2001;128:3855–3866.
Schweitzer R, Zelzer E, Volk T. Connecting muscles to tendons: tendons and musculoskeletal development in flies and vertebrates. Development. 2010;137:2807–2817.
Pryce BA, Watson SS, Murchison ND, Staverosky JA, Dünker N, Schweitzer R. Recruitment and maintenance of tendon progenitors by TGFbeta signaling are essential for tendon formation. Development. 2009;136:1351–1361.
Guerquin MJ, Betz O, Ochsner PE, Liu F, Porter RM, Evans CH. Transcription factor EGR1 directs tendon differentiation and promotes tendon repair. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:3564–3576.
Majewski M, Betz O, Ochsner PE, Liu F, Porter RM, Evans CH. Ex vivo adenoviral transfer of bone morphogenetic protein 12 (BMP-12) cDNA improves Achilles tendon healing in a rat model. Gene Ther. 2008;15:1139–1146.
Chen CH, Cao Y, Wu YF, Bais AJ, Gao JS, Tang JB. Tendon healing in vivo: gene expression and production of multiple growth factors in early tendon healing period. J Hand Surg Am. 2008;33:1834–1842.
Muttini A, Salini V, Valbonetti L, Abate M. Stem cell therapy of tendinopathies: suggestions from veterinary medicine. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2012;2:187–192.
Yin Z, Chen X, Zhu T, et al. The effect of decellularized matrices on human tendon stem/progenitor cell differentiation and tendon repair. Acta Biomater. 2013
Ning LJ, Zhang Y, Chen XH, et al. Preparation and characterization of decellularized tendon slices for tendon tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2012;100:1448–1456.
Huang TF, Yew TL, Chiang ER, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells from a hypoxic culture improve and engraft Achilles tendon repair. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41:1117–1125.
Philip J, Hackl F, Canseco JA, et al. Amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells improve achilles tendon repair in rats. Eplasty. 2013;13:e31.
Bell KJ, Fulcher ML, Rowlands DS, Kerse N. Impact of autologous blood injections in treatment of mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy: double blind randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2013;346:f2310.
Parafioriti A, Armiraglio E, Del Bianco S, Tibalt E, Oliva F, Berardi AC. Single injection of platelet-rich plasma in a rat Achilles tendon tear model. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2011;1:41–47.
Al-Abbad H, Simon JV. The effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on chronic achilles tendinopathy: a systematic review. Foot Ankle Int. 2013;34:33–41.
Webb WR, Dale TP, Lomas AJ, et al. The application of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) scaffolds for tendon repair in the rat model. Biomaterials. 2013;34:6683–6694.
Kaux JF, Drion P, Libertiaux V, et al. Tendon tissue engineering and its role on healing of the experimentally induced large tendon defect model in rabbits: a comprehensive in vivo study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e73016.
Oryan A, Moshiri A, Parizi Meimandi A, Silver IA. A long-term in vivo investigation on the effects of xenogenous based, electrospun, collagen implants on the healing of experimentally-induced large tendon defects. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2013;13:315–329.
Reverchon E, Baldino L, Cardea S, De Marco I. Biodegradable synthetic scaffolds for tendon regeneration. Muscles Ligaments Tendons J. 2012;2:181–186.
Padulo J, Oliva F, Frizziero A, Maffulli N. Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal. Basic principles and recommendations in clinical and field science research. MLTJ. 2013;4:250–252.
Alfredson H, Pietila T, Jonsson P, Lorentzon R. Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26:360–366.
Horstmann T, Jud HM, Frohlich V, Mundermann A, Grau S. Whole-body vibration versus eccentric training or a wait-and-see approach for chronic Achilles tendinopathy: a randomized clinical trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013;43:794–803.
Knobloch K. Eccentric training in Achilles tendinopathy: is it harmful to tendon microcirculation? Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:e2. ; discussion e2.
Maffulli N, Walley G, Sayana MK, Longo UG, Denaro V. Eccentric calf muscle training in athletic patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Disabil Rehabil. 2008;30:1677–1684.
Rompe JD, Nafe B, Furia JP, Maffulli N. Eccentric loading, shock-wave treatment, or a wait-and-see policy for tendinopathy of the main body of tendo Achillis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:374–383.
Kaux JF, Drion P, Libertiaux V, et al. Eccentric training improves tendon biomechanical properties: a rat model. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:119–124.